Coca has been, ancestrally, a sacred leaf. We, the indigenous, have had a profound respect toward it... a respect that includes that we don't "pisar" it (the verb "pisar" means to treat the leaves with a chemical substance, one of the first steps in the production of cocaine). In general, we only use it to acullicar: We chew it during times of war, during ritual ceremonies to salute Mother Earth (the Pachamama) or Father Sun or other Aymara divinities, like the hills. Thus, as an indigenous nation, we have never prostituted Mama Coca or done anything artificial to it because it is a mother. It is the occidentals who have prostituted it. It is they who made it into a drug. This doesn't mean that we don't understand the issue. We know that this plague threatens all of humanity and, from that perspective, we believe that those who have prostituted the coca have to be punished. - former Bolivian guerrilla leader and presidential candidate Felipe Quispe 2002 via Rigorous Intuition (link)
Foucault located the disciplinary societies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; they reach their height at the outset of the twentieth. They initiate the organization of vast spaces of enclosure. The individual never ceases passing from one closed environment to another, each having its own laws: first the family; then the school ("you are no longer in your family"); then the barracks ("you are no longer at school"); then the factory; from time to time the hospital; possibly the prison, the preeminent instance of the enclosed environment. It's the prison that serves as the analogical model: at the sight of some laborers, the heroine of Rossellini's Europa '51 could exclaim, "I thought I was seeing convicts."
Foucault has brilliantly analyzed the ideal project of these environments of enclosure, particularly visible within the factory: to concentrate; to distribute in space; to order in time; to compose a productive force within the dimension of space-time whose effect will be greater than the sum of its component forces. But what Foucault recognized as well was the transience of this model: it succeeded that of the societies of sovereignty, the goal and functions of which were something quite different (to tax rather than to organize production, to rule on death rather than to administer life); the transition took place over time, and Napoleon seemed to effect the large-scale conversion from one society to the other. But in their turn the disciplines underwent a crisis to the benefit of new forces that were gradually instituted and which accelerated after World War II: a disciplinary society was what we already no longer were, what we had ceased to be.
We are in a generalized crisis in relation to all the environments of enclosure--prison, hospital, factory, school, family. The family is an "interior," in crisis like all other interiors--scholarly, professional, etc. The administrations in charge never cease announcing supposedly necessary reforms: to reform schools, to reform industries, hospitals, the armed forces, prisons. But everyone knows that these institutions are finished, whatever the length of their expiration periods. It's only a matter of administering their last rites and of keeping people employed until the installation of the new forces knocking at the door. These are the societies of control, which are in the process of replacing disciplinary societies. "Control" is the name Burroughs proposes as a term for the new monster, one that Foucault recognizes as our immediate future. Paul Virilio also is continually analyzing the ultrarapid forms of free-floating control that replaced the old disciplines operating in the time frame of a closed system. There is no need to invoke the extraordinary pharmaceutical productions, the molecular engineering, the genetic manipulations, although these are slated to enter the new process. There is no need to ask which is the toughest regime, for it's within each of them that liberating and enslaving forces confront one another. For example, in the crisis of the hospital as environment of enclosure, neighborhood clinics, hospices, and day care could at first express new freedom, but they could participate as well in mechanisms of control that are equal to the harshest of confinements. There is no need to fear or hope, but only to look for new weapons.
The different internments of spaces of enclosure through which the individual passes are independent variables: each time one us supposed to start from zero, and although a common language for all these places exists, it is analogical. One the other hand, the different control mechanisms are inseparable variations, forming a system of variable geometry the language of which is numerical (which doesn't necessarily mean binary). Enclosures are molds, distinct castings, but controls are a modulation, like a self-deforming cast that will continuously change from one moment to the other, or like a sieve whose mesh will transmute from point to point.
This is obvious in the matter of salaries: the factory was a body that contained its internal forces at the level of equilibrium, the highest possible in terms of production, the lowest possible in terms of wages; but in a society of control, the corporation has replaced the factory, and the corporation is a spirit, a gas. Of course the factory was already familiar with the system of bonuses, but the corporation works more deeply to impose a modulation of each salary, in states of perpetual metastability that operate through challenges, contests, and highly comic group sessions. If the most idiotic television game shows are so successful, it's because they express the corporate situation with great precision. The factory constituted individuals as a single body to the double advantage of the boss who surveyed each element within the mass and the unions who mobilized a mass resistance; but the corporation constantly presents the brashest rivalry as a healthy form of emulation, an excellent motivational force that opposes individuals against one another and runs through each, dividing each within. The modulating principle of "salary according to merit" has not failed to tempt national education itself. Indeed, just as the corporation replaces the factory, perpetual training tends to replace the school, and continuous control to replace the examination. Which is the surest way of delivering the school over to the corporation.
In the disciplinary societies one was always starting again (from school to the barracks, from the barracks to the factory), while in the societies of control one is never finished with anything--the corporation, the educational system, the armed services being metastable states coexisting in one and the same modulation, like a universal system of deformation. In The Trial, Kafka, who had already placed himself at the pivotal point between two types of social formation, described the most fearsome of judicial forms. The apparent acquittal of the disciplinary societies (between two incarcerations); and the limitless postponements of the societies of control (in continuous variation) are two very different modes of juridicial life, and if our law is hesitant, itself in crisis, it's because we are leaving one in order to enter the other. The disciplinary societies have two poles: the signature that designates the individual, and the number or administrative numeration that indicates his or her position within a mass. This is because the disciplines never saw any incompatibility between these two, and because at the same time power individualizes and masses together, that is, constitutes those over whom it exercises power into a body and molds the individuality of each member of that body. (Foucault saw the origin of this double charge in the pastoral power of the priest--the flock and each of its animals--but civil power moves in turn and by other means to make itself lay "priest.") In the societies of control, on the other hand, what is important is no longer either a signature or a number, but a code: the code is a password, while on the other hand disciplinary societies are regulated by watchwords (as much from the point of view of integration as from that of resistance). The numerical language of control is made of codes that mark access to information, or reject it. We no longer find ourselves dealing with the mass/individual pair. Individuals have become "dividuals," and masses, samples, data, markets, or "banks." Perhaps it is money that expresses the distinction between the two societies best, since discipline always referred back to minted money that locks gold as numerical standard, while control relates to floating rates of exchange, modulated according to a rate established by a set of standard currencies. The old monetary mole is the animal of the space of enclosure, but the serpent is that of the societies of control. We have passed from one animal to the other, from the mole to the serpent, in the system under which we live, but also in our manner of living and in our relations with others. The disciplinary man was a discontinuous producer of energy, but the man of control is undulatory, in orbit, in a continuous network. Everywhere surfing has already replaced the older sports.
Types of machines are easily matched with each type of society--not that machines are determining, but because they express those social forms capable of generating them and using them. The old societies of sovereignty made use of simple machines--levers, pulleys, clocks; but the recent disciplinary societies equipped themselves with machines involving energy, with the passive danger of entropy and the active danger of sabotage; the societies of control operate with machines of a third type, computers, whose passive danger is jamming and whose active one is piracy or the introduction of viruses. This technological evolution must be, even more profoundly, a mutation of capitalism, an already well-known or familiar mutation that can be summed up as follows: nineteenth-century capitalism is a capitalism of concentration, for production and for property. It therefore erects a factory as a space of enclosure, the capitalist being the owner of the means of production but also, progressively, the owner of other spaces conceived through analogy (the worker's familial house, the school). As for markets, they are conquered sometimes by specialization, sometimes by colonization, sometimes by lowering the costs of production. But in the present situation, capitalism is no longer involved in production, which it often relegates to the Third World, even for the complex forms of textiles, metallurgy, or oil production. It's a capitalism of higher-order production. It no-longer buys raw materials and no longer sells the finished products: it buys the finished products or assembles parts. What it wants to sell is services but what it wants to buy is stocks. This is no longer a capitalism for production but for the product, which is to say, for being sold or marketed. Thus is essentially dispersive, and the factory has given way to the corporation. The family, the school, the army, the factory are no longer the distinct analogical spaces that converge towards an owner--state or private power--but coded figures--deformable and transformable--of a single corporation that now has only stockholders. Even art has left the spaces of enclosure in order to enter into the open circuits of the bank. The conquests of the market are made by grabbing control and no longer by disciplinary training, by fixing the exchange rate much more than by lowering costs, by transformation of the product more than by specialization of production. Corruption thereby gains a new power. Marketing has become the center or the "soul" of the corporation. We are taught that corporations have a soul, which is the most terrifying news in the world. The operation of markets is now the instrument of social control and forms the impudent breed of our masters. Control is short-term and of rapid rates of turnover, but also continuous and without limit, while discipline was of long duration, infinite and discontinuous. Man is no longer man enclosed, but man in debt. It is true that capitalism has retained as a constant the extreme poverty of three-quarters of humanity, too poor for debt, too numerous for confinement: control will not only have to deal with erosions of frontiers but with the explosions within shanty towns or ghettos.
The conception of a control mechanism, giving the position of any element within an open environment at any given instant (whether animal in a reserve or human in a corporation, as with an electronic collar), is not necessarily one of science fiction. Felix Guattari has imagined a city where one would be able to leave one's apartment, one's street, one's neighborhood, thanks to one's (dividual) electronic card that raises a given barrier; but the card could just as easily be rejected on a given day or between certain hours; what counts is not the barrier but the computer that tracks each person's position--licit or illicit--and effects a universal modulation.
The socio-technological study of the mechanisms of control, grasped at their inception, would have to be categorical and to describe what is already in the process of substitution for the disciplinary sites of enclosure, whose crisis is everywhere proclaimed. It may be that older methods, borrowed from the former societies of sovereignty, will return to the fore, but with the necessary modifications. What counts is that we are at the beginning of something. In the prison system: the attempt to find penalties of "substitution," at least for petty crimes, and the use of electronic collars that force the convicted person to stay at home during certain hours. For the school system: continuous forms of control, and the effect on the school of perpetual training, the corresponding abandonment of all university research, the introduction of the "corporation" at all levels of schooling. For the hospital system: the new medicine "without doctor or patient" that singles out potential sick people and subjects at risk, which in no way attests to individuation--as they say--but substitutes for the individual or numerical body the code of a "dividual" material to be controlled. In the corporate system: new ways of handling money, profits, and humans that no longer pass through the old factory form. These are very small examples, but ones that will allow for better understanding of what is meant by the crisis of the institutions, which is to say, the progressive and dispersed installation of a new system of domination. One of the most important questions will concern the ineptitude of the unions: tied to the whole of their history of struggle against the disciplines or within the spaces of enclosure, will they be able to adapt themselves or will they give way to new forms of resistance against the societies of control? Can we already grasp the rough outlines of the coming forms, capable of threatening the joys of marketing? Many young people strangely boast of being "motivated"; they re-request apprenticeships and permanent training. It's up to them to discover what they're being made to serve, just as their elders discovered, not without difficulty, the telos of the disciplines. The coils of a serpent are even more complex that the burrows of a molehill.
L'autre journal, Nr. I, Mai 1990.
The Theater and Culture
Never before, when it is life that is in question, has there been so much talk of civilization and culture. And there is a curious parallel between this generalized collapse of life at the root of our present demoralization and our concern for a culture which has never been coincident with life, which in fact has been devised to tyrannize life.
Before speaking further about culture, I must remark that the world is hungry and not concerned with culture, and that the attempt to orient toward culture thoughts turned only toward hunger is a purely artificial expedient.
What is more important, it seems to me, is not so much to defend a culture whose existence has never kept a man from going hungry, as to extract, from what is called culture, ideas whose compelling force is identical with that of hunger.
We need to live first of all: to believe in what makes us live and that something makes us live – to believe that whatever is produced from the mysterious depths of ourselves need not forever haunt us as an exclusively digestive concern.
I mean that if it is important for us to eat first of all, it is even more important for us for us not to waste in the sole concern for eating our simple power of being hungry.
If confusion is the sign of the times, I see at the root of this confusion a rupture between things and words, between things and ideas and signs that are their representation.
Not, of course, for lack of philosophical systems: their number and contradictions characterize our old French and European culture: but where can it be shown that life, our life, has ever been affected by these systems? I will not say that philosophical systems must be applied directly and immediately: but of the following alternatives, one must be true:
Either these systems are within us and permeate our being to the point of supporting life itself (and this is the case, what use are books?), or they do not permeate us and therefore do not have the capacity to support life (and in this case what does their disappearance matter?).
We must insist upon the idea of culture-in-action, of culture growing within us like a new organ, a sort of second breath: and on civilization as an applied culture controlling even our subtlest actions, a presence of mind; the distinction between culture and civilization is an artificial one, providing two words to signify an identical function.
A civilized man judges and is judged according to his behavior, but even the term "civilized" leads to confusion: a cultivated "civilized" man is regarded as a person instructed in systems, a person who thinks in forms, signs, representations – a monster whose faculty of deriving thoughts from acts, instead of identifying acts with thoughts, is developed to an absurdity.
If our life lacks brimstone, i.e., a constant magic, it is because we choose to observe our acts and lose ourselves in consideration of their imagined form instead of being impelled by their force.
And this faculty is an exclusively human one. I would even say that is this infection of the human which contaminates ideas that should have remained divine" for far from believing that man invented the supernatural and the divine, I think it is man's age old intervention which has ultimately corrupted the divine within him.
All our ideas about life must be revised in a period when nothing any longer adheres to life; it is this painful cleavage which is responsible for the revenge of things; the poetry which is no longer within us and which we no longer succeed in finding in things suddenly appears on their wrong side: consider the unprecedented number of crimes whose perverse gratuitousness is explained only by our powerlessness to take complete possession of life.
If the theater has been created as an outlet for our repressions, the agonized poetry expressed in its bizarre corruptions of the facts of life demonstrates that life's intensity is still intact and asks only to be better directed.
But not matter how loudly we clamor for magic in our lives, we are really afraid of pursuing an existence entirely under its influence and sign.
Hence our confirmed lack of culture is astonished by certain grandiose anomalies: for example, on an island without any contact with modern civilization, the mere passage of a ship carrying only healthy passengers may provoke the sudden outbreak of diseases unknown on that island but a specialty of nations like our own: shingles, influenza, grippe, rheumatism, sinusitis, polyneuritis, etc...
Similarly, if we think Negroes smell bad, we are ignorant of the fact that anywhere but in Europe it is we whites who "smell bad". And I would even say that we give off an odor as white as the gathering of pus in an infected wound.
As iron can be heated until it turns white, so it can be said that everything that is excessive is white; for Asiatics white has become the mark of extreme decomposition.
This said, we can begin to form an idea of culture, an idea which is first of all a protest.
A pretext against the senseless constraint imposed upon the idea of culture by reducing it to a sort of inconceivable Pantheon, producing an idolatry no different from the image-worship of those religions which relegate their gods to Pantheons.
A protest against the idea of culture as distinct from life – as if there were culture on one side and life on the other, as if true culture where not a refined means of understanding and exercising life.
The library at Alexandria can be burnt down. There are forces above and beyond papyrus: we may temporarily be deprived of our ability to discover these forces, but their energy will not be suppressed. It is good that our excessive facilities are no longer available, that forms fall into oblivion: a culture without space or time, restrained only by the capacity of our own nerves, will reappear with all the more energy. It is right that from time to time cataclysms occur which compel us to return to nature, i.e. to rediscover life. The old totemism of animals, stone, objects capable of discharging thunderbolts, costumes impregnated with bestial essences – everything, in short, that might determine, disclose, and direct the secret forces of the universe – is for us a dead thing, from which we derive nothing but static and aesthetic profit, the profit of an audience, not of an actor.
Yet totemism is an actor, for it moves, and has been crated in behalf of actors; all true culture relies upon the barbarism and primitive means of totemism whose savage, i.e., entirely spontaneous, life I wish to worship.
What has lost us culture is our Occidental idea of art and the profits we see to derive from it. Art and culture cannot be considered together, contrary to the treatment universally accorded them!
True culture operates by exaltation and force, while the European ideal of art attempts to cast the mind into an attitude distinct from force but addicted to exaltation. It is a lazy, unserviceable notion which engenders an imminent death. If the Serpent Quetzalcoatl's multiple twists and turns are harmonious, it is because they express the equilibrium and fluctuations of a sleeping force; the intensity of the forms is there only to seduce and direct a force which, in music, would produce an unsupportable range of sound.
The gods that sleep in museums: the god of fire with his incense burner that resembles an Inquisition tripod; Tlaloc, one of the manifold Gods of the Waters, on his wall of green granite; the Mother Goddess of Waters, the Mother Goddess of Flowers; the immutable expression, echoing from beneath many layers of water, of the Goddess robed in green jade; the enraptured blissful expression, features crackling with incense, where atoms of sunlight circle – the countenance of the Mother Goddess of Flowers; this world of obligatory servitude in which a stone comes alive when it has been properly carved, the world of organically civilized men whose vital organs too awaken from their slumber, this human world enters into us, participating in the dance of the gods, without turning round or looking back, on pain of becoming, like ourselves, crumbled pillars of salt.
In Mexico, since we are speaking of Mexico, there is no art: things are made for use. And the world is in perpertual exaltation.
To our disinterested and inert idea of art an authentic culture opposes a violently egoistic and magical, i.e. interested idea. The Mexicans seek contact with the Manas, forces latent in every form, unreleased by contemplation of the forms for themselves, but springing to life by magic identification with these forms. And the old Totems are there to hasten the communication.
How hard it is, when everything encourages us to sleep, though we may look about us with conscious, clinging eyes, to wake and yet look about us as in a dream, with eyes that no longer know their function and whose gaze is turned inward.
This is how our strange idea of disinterested action originated, though it is action nonetheless, and all the more violent for skirting the temptation of repose.
Every real effigy has a shadow which is its double; and art must falter and fail from the moment the sculptor believes he has liberated the kind of shadow whose very existence will destroy his repose.
Like all magic cultures expressed by appropriate hieroglyphs, the true theater has its shadows too, and of all languages and all arts, the theater is the only one left whose shadows have shattered their limitations. From the beginning, on might say its shadows did not tolerate limitations.
Our petrified idea of the theater is connected with our petrified idea of a culture without shadows, where, no matter which way it turns, our mind (esprit) encounters only emptiness, though space is full.
But the true theater, because is moves and makes use of living instruments, continues to stir up shadows where life has never ceased to grope its way. The actor does not make the same gesture twice, but he makes gestures, he moves; and although he brutalizes forms, nevertheless behind them and through their destruction he rejoins that which outlives forms and produces their continuation.
The theater, which is in no thing, but makes use of everything – gestures, sounds, words, screams, light, darkness – rediscovers itself at precisely the point where the mind requires a language to express its manifestations.
And the fixation of the theater in one language – written words, music, lights, noises – betokens its imminent ruin, the choice of any one language betraying a taste for the special effects of that language; and the desiccation of the language accompanies its limitation.
For the theater as for culture, it remains a question of naming and directing shadows: and the theater, not confined to a fixed language and form, not only destroys false shadows but prepares the way for a new generation of shadows, around which assembles the true spectacle of life.
To break through language in order to touch life is to create or recreate the theater; the essential thing is not to believe that this act must remain sacred, i.e., set apart the essential thing is to believe that not just anyone can create it, and that there must be a preparation.
This leads to the rejection of the usual limitations of man and man's powers, and infinitely extends the frontiers of what is called reality.
We must believe in a sense of life renewed by the theater, a sense of life in which man makes himself master of what does not yet exist, and brings it into being. And everything that has not been born can still be brought to life if we are not satisfied to remain mere recording organisms.
Furthermore, when we speak the word "life", it must be understood we are not referring to life as we know it from the surface of fact, but to that fragile, fluctuating center which forms never reach. And if there is one hellish, truly accursed thing in our time, it is our artistic dallying with forms, instead of being like victims burnt at the stake, signaling through the flames.
by Antonin Artaud (1938) – Copyrights Grove Press Inc. 1958, translated by Mary Caroline Richards
John J. McMurtrey, M. S., Copyright 2004,[a] 12 Sept. 05
Co-authorship is negotiable towards professional publication in an NLM indexed journal, Email- Johnmcmurt@aol.com
Donations toward future research are gratefully appreciated at http://www.slavery.org.uk/FutureResearch.htm
Reports of specific concept recognition in humans by technical means on hearing words, viewing images or words, and prior to vocalization are examined. These reports are consistent with an extensive literature on word category differentiation by electrophysiology and blood flow, which is reviewed. EEG discrimination literature of emotional states, and deception is surveyed along with non-invasive brain computer interface reports. Non-contact and remote methods of brain wave assessment are also considered. The literature treated lends some substantiation to press accounts indicating thought reading is possible, and has had covert development.
The Bible attributes to God the capacity to know the thoughts of men.  Most scientists are unaware that thought reading by electroencephalogram (EEG) was reported as feasible in work begun over 30 years ago,  which more recently a number of groups confirm by EEG, Magnetoencephalograpy (MEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) technologies. This review focuses on literature relating to technologic thought reading, though also treated are the discrimination of more general cognitive states, brainwave capture methods, and reports of thought reading development apparently covert to open literature.
METHODS OF SPECIFIC CONCEPT RECOGNITION
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1972 contracted Pinneo & Hall for work that a 1975 US technical report entitled “Feasibility Study For Design of a Biocybernetic Communication System.” The study concludes “that it is feasible to use the human EEG coincident with overt and covert speech as inputs to a computer for such communication” (covert speech is defined as verbal thinking). 2 The 149 page report [b] states: “enough information has been obtained . . . to specify the optimum parameters to use for an EEG operating system, and to suggest future research towards that end.”
Pinneo & Hall utilized templates for EEG word recognition constructed by averaging EEG patterns evoked by 9 words in each subject for visually presented words, and primarily utilized 4 electrodes over brain language areas for prediction. People with high hemispheric lateralization had EEG patterns for some words that frequently classified 100% correctly, regardless of the number of repetitions with stablity over time. Over all words, however, classification accuracy for these people was 85% for overtly, and 72% for words repeated to oneself, but solely by mental means without vocalization. Across all subjects specific word EEG patterns were classified 35% correctly for overtly, and 27% correctly for covertly spoken words, but more people were in the 70-100% classification range than in the 10-15% range. [c] Subjects with low hemispheric laterality, particularly stutterers had near chance EEG classification. EEG concept recognition was actually 10-15% higher for pictures rather than words. Phrases containing similarly articulated words or homonyms were better recognized than these words alone without context.
Suppes et. al. have the most extensive recent publications supporting and reporting specific EEG thought recognition.      This work largely compares recognition improvement methods with some emphasis on a relative invariance of EEG concept representations across individuals. The procedures generally utilized Fourrier transforms of both templates for recognizing words, and test samples with an optimal EEG frequency window, or filter selected for each subject. EEG word templates constructed by averaging each subject’s responses (50 trials) at single electrodes resulted in less EEG word recognition, 3 than recognition templates averaged across all subjects (700 trials) [d] for bipolar electrode difference. The latter technique produced recognition rates over seven words of 100% for visual images and auditory words. 5 [e] However, for visually presented words, recognition templates generated by excluding from the average the subject tested was better--75% than averaging within subject or over all subjects. The waveforms for each presentation modality were very similar, and when recognition templates averaged across subjects in the modalities of visual images or words were utilized for recognizing other modalities (visual images or words & auditory), recognition still was generally 60-75%. Such results were despite inclusion of three subjects with English as a second language, and obvious hemispheric laterality confounds important to Pinneo & Hall, [f] such as one left handed and another ambidexterous subject. These results indicate a relative invariance of EEG representations for different concepts between subjects and perception modality, when averaging out and filtering noise. Matching templates to words is derived by amplitude difference between template and test word waveforms, when sampled at 814 difference points as squared and summed (Pinneo & Hall had 255 samples per word).
Also examined are brain wave patterns for sentences. Recognizing the first sentence word by the same words individually presented, and the same words in sentences when cut and pasted was successful at a 50% recognition rate (with 8.3% as chance). 4 Even when excluding a subject from the averaged template, over 90% recognition was obtained for 48 sentences, as visually presented one word at a time. 6
Averaged unfiltered auditory responses are classified 100% correctly by the superposition of 3 sine waves chosen from the frequency domain maxima for each word.7 The same procedure when averaged across subjects and presentation modalities (visual images, visual and auditory words) classifies 100% of the words by 5 frequencies per word, while data fit decreased only 6% compared to the filtered templates. Syllable classification is less successful, with six correct classifications out of eight examples from superposition of nine frequencies.
A Korean group reports yes/no decision discrimination of 86% by spatio-temporal cross correlation.  This was achieved from 4 electrodes over bilateral frontal and occipital sites. Differential equation measures of synchronization rate and average polarity also had high recognition rates of 78% and 81% respectively.
Other investigators publish magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recognition of viewed words above chance significantly by 27% for recognition and 44% for accuracy.  Although these results were only somewhat above chance, MEG also was less successful for Suppes et al., 3 4 and a speech recognition optimized artificial intelligence system was utilized without filters or recognition templates. The authors expressed surprise that any recognition was possible, considering that input utilized only a simple technique; root mean squares of foci.
There is apparently a Russian report of specific EEG word recognition before 1981.  The work is only known from a science reporter, and specifically unavailable, but is mentioned to aid this report’s discovery, and because of the claim that specific words contain category information, which is of possible significance for word category differentiation studies.
Patents for EEG thought recognition exist. Electroencephalographic (EEG) instant detection by syllables of “a content of category which the testee wishes to speak” quotes Kiyuna et. al. Patent # 5785653 “System and method for predicting internal condition of live body.”  A stated use: “the present invention may be use (sic) to detect the internal condition of surveillance in criminal investigation” by EEG. NEC Corporation licensed this patent. Mardirossian Patent # 6011991 “Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity” includes remote EEG communication with armed forces or clandestine applications.  This patent proposes transmitter capable skin implants, utilizes artificial intelligence, and is licensed by Technology Patents, LLC.
Studies of brain blood flow changes detected by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), confirms that viewing pictures of objects activates specifically identifiable brain patterns. Comparing the distributed brain activity observed by fMRI for viewing faces, houses, cats, chairs, bottles, shoes, and scissors were 90-100% correct in all two category comparisons (with 50% as chance).  A different group replicates the results of this report.  Even though all these objects are described as categories because different exemplars and views were presented, discrimination of these objects generally requires an adjective, so that the distinctions qualify as specific concepts. A further report examined just 20 seconds of fMRI data rather than one half of an fMRI session in the previous studies, and utilized different exemplars of an object category for training classifiers from those utilized during classification. A support vector classifier provided the best results with 59-97% accuracy among ‘categories’ of baskets, birds, butterflies, chairs, teapots, cows, horses, tropical fish, garden gnomes, and African masks (with 10% as chance).  “Brain reading” are descriptive terms titling the report.
Numerous fMRI studies show similarly activated brain regions for viewing images or words, and hearing words. Viewing pictures of objects or the word naming them activates similar distributed brain systems for storing semantic knowledge,    and auditory presentation also shares the same  or a similar  system with that of viewing these words. These studies give anatomical basis for the high cross modality recognition rates of concepts observed by Suppes et al. 5 7
PHYSIOLOGIC DISCRIMINATION OF WORD CATEGORIES
Broca and Wernicke originally defined anatomy pertinent to aphasia resulting from brain injury.  More recently described are brain lesion patients who have very selective agnosias, which is an inability to name or recognize specific object classes.    Many word category differentiation reports reviewed below were initiated to explain and substantiate such deficits. This literature is consistent with specific word recognition, because word responses are averaged by category, and distinguished with only statistical inspection without template generation or specific comparison thereto as is required for thought recognition. Brain cell assembly activation provides a theoretical framework for both specific concept recognition, and word category discrimination. 
Electroencephalogram and Magnetoencephalogram Word Category Discrimination
Evoked EEG responses discriminate nouns and verbs. Nouns elicit more theta power than verbs, but verbs have greater theta coherence decrease, particularly in frontal versus posterior sites.  Noun waveforms generally are more negative than verb responses at post-stimulus intervals of both 200-350 and 350-450 milliseconds (msec.)     Ambiguous noun/verbs are more negative than unambiguous nouns or verbs in the early latency interval, and when context indicates noun meaning versus verb use, are more negative over both these latency windows. 30 Anterior-posterior electrode activity also differs for ambiguous versus unambiguous nouns and verbs. 30 
Action verb waveforms differ in amplitude, 28 and central versus posterior distribution compared to visual nouns,  with particular 30 Hz increase over the motor cortex for action verbs, and over the visual cortex for visual nouns.   Face, arm, or leg action verbs differ in amplitude by time interval, and activity increases over the specific corresponding motor strip locus as well as by frontal electrode.   Low resolution electromagnetic tomography finds irregular verb activity more in the left superior and middle temporal gyri, while regular verbs are more active in the right medial frontal gyrus at 288-321 msec.  Irregular verbs respond more in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex than regular verbs at ~340 msec. by MEG, which localizes perpendicular sources undetectable by EEG.  Regular verb activity modulates more the left inferior prefrontal region including Broca’s area at ~470 msec with MEG, but irregular verbs have more right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at ~570 msec. Priming evoked patterns occur for regular but not irregular verbs,   while incorrect irregular noun plural  and verb participle   waveforms differ from that of incorrect regular forms.
Abstract word waveforms onset more positively about 300 msec., persist longer at lateral frontal sites, and distribute more to both hemispheres compared to concrete words.28   β-1 frequency coherence during memorization of concrete nouns indicates left hemisphere electrode T5 as the main brain processing node.  Left hemisphere electrode T3 is similarly important for abstract nouns, which have more frontal area contribution, and massive right posterior hemisphere coupling. Abstract versus concrete memorization distinctly changes other frequency bands,   and theta synchronization predicts efficient encoding. 
Content words yield a more negative peak at 350-400 msec. than functional grammar words, with a subsequent occipital positivity that function words lack, and more electrode and hemisphere differences from 400- 700 msec.   In sentences, the late component of function words resembles preparatory slow waves that apparently subserve their introductory and conjunctive grammatical function.  Other studies show content versus function word differences at additional intervals and more bi-hemispheric effects, with right visual field advantage for function words.  MEG distinguishes functional grammar words, or content words such as multimodal nouns, visual nouns, or action verbs, each by response strength and laterality at intervals of both ~100 and greater than 150 msec. 
Proper name amplitudes peak more just after 100 msec. negatively, and just after 200 msec. positively than common nouns, while one’s own name accentuates these peaks relative to other proper names with further positive and negative components.  Proper names, animals, verbs, and numerals show electrode site differences: proper name temporal negativity extends to inferior electrodes bilaterally; verbs and animal names are less negative and similar, but verbs have left frontal inferior positivity; while numerals have less waveform negativity, and bilateral parietal positivity.  Non-animal objects are more negative in both the 150-250 and 350-500 msec. intervals than animals, while animals are more positive in the 250-350 msec. interval.   Animals are more positive in approximately the same latter interval than vegetables/fruits, while vegetables/fruits are more negative in about the earlier interval (150-250 msec.), and have stronger frontal region current sources than animals.  Animals in natural scenes evoke different waveforms than just natural scene or building pictures.  Responses to words for living things are less negative over the right occipital-temporal region than artifactual objects, while pictorial presentations of the same items further differ and have hemisphere effects noted as unreported.  EEG waveforms for specific meanings could be as discretely categorized as indicated by the reported but unspecified Russian work, which claims that “the waves for such concepts as “chair”, “desk”, and “table” are all overlapped by another wave that corresponds” to the concept of furniture. 10
Affective word meanings such as good-bad, strong-weak, or active-passive are discriminated  by both category and meaning polarity according to response latency, amplitude, and scalp distribution at intervals of 80-265 and 565-975 msec.  Positive words have amplitude increases peaking at 230 msec. compared to negative words, and relative to neutral words increase a subsequent peak amplitude as well as a slow wave component.  Emotional words also show less amplitude decrease on repetition than neutral words. 
Some of these word category differentiation reports are consistent with both the specific recognition reports, and/or the discrimination of non-verbal cognition. Based on EEG/MEG responses, words are readily distinguished from non-words,    pictures,  and as to length.  Even commas have a characteristic waveform similar to the speech phrase closure evoked pattern called closure positive shift.  Color selection modulates the EEG.  EEG discriminates the judgement of gender for both faces and hands. 
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Word Category Discrimination
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) localize brain blood flow, with ability to distinguish perceptual categories. Some studies locate recognition of places   and faces  within certain brain areas, however, expertise can recruit the face recognition area,  and other studies show these areas only responding maximally for specific stimuli.  Word category activity is both distributed and overlapping 79  in a somewhat lumpy manner.  Though regions of word category difference are indicated below, brain comprehension is not solely dependent on these areas. Discrete category responsive emergence may have some resemblance to category segregation in the feature processing of artificial neural networks that self organize without programming. 
Meta-analysis of 14 studies locating activity for face, natural, and manufactured object recognition shows ventral temporal cortex difference. Face recognition activates more inferior ventral temporal portions including the fusiform gyrus of which manufactured objects activate more medial aspects than face or natural objects, yet natural objects distribute more widely in this region.  Eighty eight percent of face studies converged for mid fusiform gyrus activity, while natural and manufactured objects converged no more than 50% for any discrete area. Manufactured object activity locates to the middle temporal cortex from natural objects, which locate more in the superior temporal cortex. Face and natural object activity is more bilateral, and in the left inferior frontal cortex, while particularly tools activate the premotor area. These studies also feature activity in the inferior occipital/posterior fusiform and the medial occipital structures of lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and cuneus.
There is some agreement that verbs have greater activity in temporal, parietal, and premotor/prefrontal regions than nouns, while nouns have little  or no  greater activated areas than verbs, yet no noun/verb difference is also reported.  German regular noun and verb fMRI responses compared to irregular words differ significantly in the right precentral gyrus, the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral posterior temporal lobes, and bilateral complexes including superior parietal lobules, supramarginal gyri, and angular gyri.  Regular words are left hemisphere lateralized, while irregular words have somewhat greater distribution to the right hemisphere, and a greater activation over all cortical areas. Irregular verbs activate more total cortex than regular verbs, but lack motor strip, insular, and most occipital cortex activity present for regular verbs.  Though both forms activate the inferior parietal lobule, irregular verbs activate more posterior and superior portions than regular verbs
Depending on control task correction, naming actions activates the left inferior parietal lobule, which is lacking for locative prepositions, which activate the left supramarginal gyrus selectively from actions.  Furthermore, naming abstract shape location compared to locating concrete items increases right supramarginal gyrus activity,89 which specifically also activates on long-term memory for spatial relations  and in American sign language prepositions.  The supramarginal gyrus is encompassed by the temporal-parietal-occipital junction active for location judgments, and is separate from temporal activity for judging color.  Action word generation activity is just anterior to the motion perception area, while color word generation activity is just anterior to the color perception area.  Naming object color activates distinct brain regions from naming the object, with color knowledge retrieval activity being slightly removed from that of naming colors.  Irrespective of language and visual or auditory modality, the naming of body parts activates the left intraparietal sulcus, precentral sulcus, and medial frontal gyrus, while naming numbers activates the right post central sulcus as joined to the intraparietal sulcus. 19
Concrete words are discriminated from abstract words in both noun or verb forms,85 with more right hemisphere activity for abstract words than concrete words.    Abstract/concrete contrasts feature both right or left temporal areas, while the reverse concrete/abstract comparison features frontal activity.      Besides distinction from abstract nouns, the concrete categories of animals contrasted to implements respond selectively in the posterior-lateral temporal, and frontal cortex areas across studies. 95 100 Limbic activity, particularly the cingulate, distinguishes emotional words from both abstract and concrete words. 96
Naming pictures of animals, tools, and famous people are discriminated  by increased regional blood flow in the left inferior frontal gyrus for animals, premotor area for tools and left middle frontal gyrus for people.  Faces activate the right lingual and bilateral fusiform gyri, while the left lateral anterior middle temporal gyrus response differs to famous faces, famous proper names, and common names.  Particularly the left anterior temporal cortex responds to names, faces, and buildings when famous relative to non-famous stimuli. 105  Viewing photographs of faces, buildings, and chairs evokes activity distributed across several cortical areas, which are each locally different in both the visual ventral temporal 79 and occipital cortices.  Photograph perception of these same categories has more hemispheric lateralization and activation than non-perceptual imagery,  while short term memory face imagery activity is stronger than that of long term memory. 
More advanced fMRI techniques discriminate further word or object classes. In a high resolution fMRI limited brain cross section study, the activity differs for animals, furniture, fruit, or tools in discrete sites of the left lateral frontal and 3 separate medial temporal cortex loci respectively.  The application of artificial intelligence to fMRI pattern distinguishes between 12 noun categories (fish, four legged animals, trees, flowers, fruits, vegetables, family members, occupations, tools, kitchen items, dwellings, and building parts).  Finally are the reports of discriminating the viewing of 7 13 14 and 10 15 different ‘categories’ so discrete as to require an adjective for distinction as previously discussed.
Some cognitive functions are related to or partly dependent on language. Letters activate the left insula more than objects and exclusively activate the left inferior parietal cortex.  Letters also activate an area in the left ventral visual cortex more than digits in most subjects.   Brain activations of mathematical thinking are partly dependent on language.  Subtraction activates bilaterally the anterior intraparietal sulcus and a phoneme area in the intraparietal sulcus mesial to the angular gyrus, selectively from simple motor tasks.  Number comparison activates right hemisphere intraparietal and prefrontal areas, while multiplication localizes more to the left hemisphere. 
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM DISCRIMINATION OF OTHER COGNITIVE STATES
Other literature indicates EEG differentiation of completely non-verbal cognition. Greater left prefrontal activity predicts positive affect, while greater right prefrontal activity predicts negative disposition in psychological testing.  However, the stability of hemispheric activation is important for such a trait characteristic,  and more transient mood states have exactly the opposite arousal symmetry.  Decreased left prefrontal activity is also found in depression,   and the anxiety situations of social phobics.  Patented is more specific attitude, mood, and emotion differentiation, by plotting at least two and as many as five EEG frequencies, with reference to Air Force research.  EEG patterns discriminate relative misanthropy and philanthropy in facial preferences, and favorable or negative responses to faces,  while waveform topography identifies sad face perception.  Another EEG emotion indicator is the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). Although slight SPNs can precede instruction cues, this wave is most pronounced while awaiting performance assessment and reward or aversive feedback.    
A number of groups have developed procedures to detect deception based on the P300 (positive @ 300 millisec) event related potential (ERP) from EEG.       A commercial system, Brain Fingerprinting,  which includes additional frequency analysis, particularly a late negative ERP potential, cites 100% accuracy over five separate studies.      Though most EEG deception detection concerns situation specific knowledge, a late positive potential approximate to the P300, is reported to vary as a function of real attitude rather than attitude report. 
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACES
EEG cortical potentials are detected for both actual movement,  and movement readiness potentials (bereitschaftspotential).   EEG sufficiently differentiates just the imagination of movement to operate switches,  move a cursor in one  or two dimensions,  control prosthesis grasp,  and guide wheel chairs left or right  in a prompted manner. EEG detects such potentials to play Pac Man,  and imagining the spinning of cubes, or arm raising in appropriate direction guides robots through simulated rooms,    both achieved without response prompting. Unprompted slow cortical potentials also can turn on computer programs.  Signals from implanted brain electrodes in monkeys achieve even more complex grasping and reaching robot arm control without body arm movement.  Some ability to recognize evoked responses to numbers  and tones  in real time by a commercial system called BrainScope has limited report.
REMOTE AND PROXIMATE BRAIN WAVE CAPTURE METHODS
EEG is typically recorded with contact electrodes with conductive paste, while MEG detectors are in an array slightly removed from the head. Remote detection of brain rhythms by electrical impedance sensors is described.  Though non-contact is the only remote descriptor for EEG, this same detector design is applied to monitoring electrocardiogram with wrist sensor location.  Passive brain wave fields extend as far as 12 feet from man as detected by a cryogenic antenna.  This device is entirely adaptable to clandestine applications, and pointed comments are made on the disappearance of physiological remote sensing literature since the 1970’s for animals and humans, while all other categories of remote sensing research greatly expanded. 
In 1976, the Malech Patent # 3951134 “Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves” was granted.  Example of operation is at 100 and 210 MHz, which are frequencies penetrating obstruction.  “The individual components of the system for monitoring and controlling brain wave activity may be of conventional type commonly employed in radar”; and “The system permits medical diagnosis of patients, inaccessible to physicians, from remote stations” are quotes indicating remote capacity. License is to Dorne & Margolin Inc., but now protection is expired with public domain. The Malech patent utilizes interference of 210 and 100 MHz frequencies resulting in a 110 MHz return signal, which is demodulated to give EEG waveform.
The capability of remote EEG is predicted by electromagnetic scattering theory using ultrashort pulses,  which is different from the unpulsed Malech patent. Ultrashort pulses are currently defined in the range of 10-12 to 10-15 second. Considering that EEG word elicited potentials are comparatively long (hundreds of milliseconds), indicates that remote radar brain wave capture is adequate to word recognition, with ultrashort pulses allowing some 109 or more radar reflections in a millisecond (10-3 sec.)
THOUGHT READING COVERT DEVELOPMENT EVIDENCE
The research arm of agencies with missions to covertly acquire information would certainly develop to operational capability any thought reading potential, which was reported feasible 30 years ago to the Department of Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Reports that such development has progressed are multiple, and two are confirmed by details of the 1975 DARPA EEG specific word recognition report, which itself is evidence of development covert to open databases. 2 An International Committee of the Red Cross Symposium synopsis states EEG computer mind reading development by Lawrence Pinneo in 1974 at Stanford.  A letter by the Department of Defense Assistant General Counsel for Manpower, Health, and Public Affairs, Robert L. Gilliat affirmed brain wave reading by the Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1976,  the same year as Malech remote EEG patent grant. Such a capacity would be unlikely to neglected by DARPA in the 22 years between the current confirmations and the Pinneo report.
In fact news reports assert such development. Articles quote Dr. John Norseen of Lockheed Martin Aeronautics that thought reading is possible and has had development.  He predicted by 2005 the deployment of thought reading detectors for profiling terrorists at airports. 170 A further acknowledgement of developing a device to read terrorists’ minds at airports was made in a NASA presentation to Northwest Airlines security specialists.  Statements in all articles indicate remoteness of brain wave detection, though somewhat proximate.
“Thought reading or synthetic telepathy” communications technology procurement is considered in a 1993 Jane’s [g] Special Operations Forces (SOF) article: “One day, SOF commandos may be capable of communicating through thought processes.”  Descriptive terms are “mental weaponry and psychic warfare” Although contemplated in future context, implied is availability of a technology with limited mobility, since troop deployment anticipation must assume prior development. Victim complaints that mind reading is part of an assault upon them are very similar to such a capacity. Other complaints by these victims, such as technologic internal voice assault are upheld by considerable documentation that internal voice transmission is feasible, even at a distance and within structures, 165 and a presumptive diagnosis of such complaints is largely consistent with microwave exposure --a basis for both internal voice and EEG capture technologies.
There is considerable confirmation of an ability to recognize specific concepts by brain activity across subjects. Identifying visual images viewed by a subject solely by measures of mental activity is replicated across five groups by two methods, with best recognition rates of 100%. Three groups report success in visually viewed word identification by brain waves in two methods with best recognition rates of 75%. Isolated groups report EEG word recognition by auditory perception and prior to vocalization, with best results of 100% for auditory perception and 35% for vocalization. Although single reports examine lesser vocabularies, over all open studies of thought recognition, some 80 words have been examined. In all, seven groups have reported some level of specific concept recognition by EEG, MEG, or fMRI. Word category distinctions would be expected from such individual differences. EEG, MEG, PET, or fMRI techniques discriminate some 42 word class or dimension distinctions, many of which would survive separate direct comparison just by reported results.
The finding that words can be classified by superposition of sine waves suggests an obvious interpretation, when considering word category blood flow activations of cell assemblies. 7 The frequencies resulting from neuron firing rates in the distributed, yet somewhat discrete regions, when interference phase summed and subtracted by arrival from different locations results in word representation in the brain’s language.
Considerable capacity to specifically detect and differentiate mental states is evident from literature reports by EEG. The fact that EEG signals are detected on a voluntary unprompted basis for turning on computer programs, 156 playing Pac Man, 152 and robot guidance 153 154 155 suggests the feasibility of a similar capacity for specific EEG concept recognition. Although most concept recognition work is related to stimulus prompted responses, unprompted detection of numbers apparently as a class, has limited report. 158 The references to remote EEG provide plausibly exploitable mechanisms, for which covert development has some indication. Making those more proximate electromagnetic detectors (MEG, cryogenic antenna, or electrical impedance sensor) the focus of a parabolic antenna, would be obvious to remote brain wave detection engineers to extend the range and provide directionality, and is a simple, common design innovation.
The plausibility of thought reading has not completely escaped scientific attention, as a French government panel expresses concern about the potential for thought reading and such a remote capacity.  Complete rejection of reports of a remote mind reading capability is just as presumptuous, in the face of complaints, as has been the dismissal of internal voice capacity. 165 News reports of covert thought reading development have confirmation in the Pinneo study, and independent assertions of more proximate thought reading development “against terrorists” affirm each other. Special operations officials consider procurement of a similar remote capacity to that of which many victims complain. Though victims will regard their experience to affirm such a thought reading capability, professional prejudice regards such complaints as defining psychiatric condition. The certain fact is that these claims have had no adequate investigation, and the available evidence questions the routinely egregious denial of civil rights to such individuals. Mind reading development must at least be considered as plausible, even regarding very remote methods.
It is known that government elements have done work in thought reading development. The logic that in the 30 years since the Pinneo work started, this capacity is operationally applied is too sound to dismiss victim corroboration and other evidence, without appropriate investigation. It would have to be admitted that funding for projects by the defense and security agencies is considerably greater than for open science, and that thought reading would be a priority area. Particularly disturbing is the existence of a remote EEG method in the public domain. Educated democracies should not be complacent at any prospect of mind reading, given the potential for privacy loss, civil rights violation, and political control.
Acknowledgements: Thanks are given to God for inspiration and guidance as well as Mr. John Allman, Secretary of Christians Against Mental Slavery for invaluable materials and support (website http://www.slavery.org.uk/ ).
EEG concept recognition articles are printable thru Pubmed as designated.
All patents are printable from the U. S. Patent Office website.
Each is free
[a] This article has been partly supported by substantial financial contributions from Christians Against Mental Slavery http://www.slavery.org.uk
[b] Pinneo’s report does not include all experiments reported to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in the six annual reports over the 3 year contract.
[c] Over the experiments presented by the report, chance would be from 6.5 to 14% depending on the size of tested vocabulary.
[d] Suppes points out that this may have been due to increased averaging per se.
[e] Though apparently only single electrodes or pairs were utilized for prediction, the best recognition rates were not always from the same electrode of pair.
[f] Almost half of the Pinneo report is devoted to resolving such confounds.
[g] Jane’s is the most respected and authoritative of defense reporting services.
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Mike Jay pays a visit to a new exhibition at Heidelberg’s Prinzhorn Collection exploring the history of the ‘influencing machine’ and its elaboration in the creations of outsider artists and schizophrenic visionaries.
The notion of a machine that controls human minds was then unprecedented
As the 21st century settles in around us, the influencing machine is quietly making itself at home in the mainstream of our techno-hungry culture. Only a decade ago, the idea of a covert device that uses futuristic technology to send messages and control minds was the hallmark of cults and subcultures: aficionados of the paranoid science fiction of Philip K Dick, or of a samizdat conspiracy literature where mind-control was occasionally proposed as the hidden hand that unifies the disparate narratives of alien abductions and controlling elites.
Now, for every 12-year-old who has seen The X-Files, The Matrix or many other film, TV and comic spin-offs, the influencing machine needs no explanation, and the Internet hums with stories of subliminal messaging, mysterious implants and military mind-control programmes. The influencing machine is even moving beyond familiarity into parody: the character who wears a tinfoil hat to deflect its malign controlling rays has become a comedy cliché, a crude shorthand for paranoia and by extension for madness in general (see FT216:22–23).
This is a stereotype that recalls that the influencing machine, for all its recent excursions into popular culture, has its roots in clinical psychiatry and psychoanalysis, where the term was originally coined nearly a century ago to describe a delusion observed in those suffering from the bizarre mental condition that was shortly to be christened ‘schizophrenia’.
So it’s both timely and appropriate that the Prinzhorn Collection in Heidelberg, whose unparalleled archives of art by psychiatric patients dates back to the same era, has chosen this moment to assemble – with the help of other celebrated collections such as the Musée de l’Art Brut in Lausanne and the Bethlem Royal Hospital Archive (see FT137:48; 147:40–44; 189:54–55) – an unprecedented display of these insane or visionary machines.
The exhibition is, appropriately, dominated by the Air Loom, the first known example of an influencing machine, which was detailed in eerily precise technical drawings between 1800 and 1810 by a Welsh tea-merchant named James Tilly Matthews, at that time confined in Bedlam (Bethlem) as an incurable lunatic (see FT170:40–42). Matthews’s plans showed a machine fuelled by barrels of magnetised gas and ‘putrid effluvia’, and powered by Leyden jars and windmill sails, that wove invisible mesmeric currents which, beamed at a human target by its sinister operators, filled the mind with alien voices and nightmarish visions and could be programmed to convulse, torture and even kill.
In an inspired and classically fortean move, the installation artist and crop circle pioneer Rod Dickinson has turned Matthews’s hallucinatory blueprints into reality. The result is an inscrutable piece that fills the main exhibition floor, towering ominously over the spectator. On one level, it’s a sober and ‘authentic’ assemblage of 18th-century technology, with oak panelling, brass fittings, hooped barrels and tanned leather tubes: a period piece, yet also brand new, as if fresh off the assembly line and poised to hiss and rumble into life.
On another level, though, its vast scale and malign intent communicates to the viewer a frisson of the claustrophobia and panic that Matthews himself felt when this uncanny device intruded into his own reality. These dissonances between the authentic and the fantastic are heightened by an audio commentary, delivered intimately to each visitor via a sleek hand-held digital pod, which describes the Air Loom’s parts and functions with clinical precision, in phrases mostly lifted verbatim from Matthews’s own description of the terrors and torments that it had inflicted on him.
The realism of the installation is buttressed by the supporting documentation on display around it, mostly on loan from the Bethlem archives. Here are original prints of Matthews’s Air Loom drawings, alongside his pointedly sane architectural plans for a new Bethlem Hospital, for which he won a prize from the hospital governors. The Bedlam doctor John Haslam’s affidavits on his patient’s mental state sit beside Matthews’s own cartoonishly mad documents where he proclaims himself ‘Omni Imperious Arch Emperor Supreme’ over the entire world, his proclamations covering page after page in his tiny and immaculate copperplate hand. The paradox of Dickinson’s piece – a painstaking reconstruction of an impossible device – is powerfully amplified by these conflicting testimonies from the moment of its creation. 1
When Matthews conceived of the Air Loom, the notion of a machine that controlled human minds was, as far as we know, unprecedented; as the 19th century progressed, doctors and psychiatrists began to see patterns in the way that some mental patients co-opted new technologies into their paranoid imaginings.
“The insane are quick to catch at new scientific notions to explain their delusions”, noted physician William Ireland in 1886. “Complaints of being electrified and being magnetised against their will have long been common; and since the invention of the telephone, they have said that there are telephones in their rooms, or that people use these instruments to torment them”. 2
The early 20th century saw patients like Jacob Mohr, who was confined in Heidelberg’s psychiatric clinic in the years around 1910, producing extraordinary diagrams filled with black boxes radiating electric currents and hypnotic rays. In the scrambled but oddly techno-savvy text that accompanies them, Mohr – like Matthews – presents himself as ‘Ruler of the World’, but also as the victim of a ‘wireless-organic-positive-polar’ device that torments and paralyses him.
In 1919, the gifted, maverick and ultimately tragic Victor Tausk, an early disciple of Sigmund Freud, 3 developed an ambitious and complex framework to describe and account for this type of delusion. His paper ‘On the Origin of the Influencing Machine in Schizophrenia’ 4 coined the enduring term for such devices (originally, in its German form, Beeinflussingsapparat) and related them to the schizophrenic patient’s sense of disconnection from the body, and their merging of internal sensations and external stimuli.
The patient who prompted Tausk to these insights was a 30-year-old philosophy student identified as Natalija A, who confided to him that her thoughts and dreams were being manipulated by an electrical device operated by a cabal of doctors in Berlin. Her case is the inspiration for an installation by contemporary New York artist Zoe Beloff, also on display here, which uses a 3D optical system to project Natalija’s phantom body into virtual space and a sensor device to trigger a disturbing melange of sequences and loops from 1920s medical training films within its organs. 5
The gallery above the main exhibition space offers some relief from the oppressive shadow of the Air Loom, but its display of influencing machine art by psychiatric patients, mostly from the years around 1900, elaborates and even intensifies the Air Loom’s psychic landscape. Like Matthews’s blueprints, many of the pieces are realised with unnerving precision, often by patients who were professional artists before their confinement.
Joseph Schneller, for example, was a technical draughtsman before his admission to the Eglfing-Haar mental hospital in 1907, at which point he started drawing elegant and chilling images of humanoid machines emitting spectral rays while performing sinister and perverted acts – typically squeezing women into tight rubber clothes that distort their bodies, or administering enemas and flagellations to nurses in elegant art nouveau tiled bathrooms.
Other artists found their images concealed in the world around them. The former sign-painter and decorator Friedrich Leonardt Fent, for example, who was transferred to mental hospital in 1910 while serving a prison term for sexual abuse of his stepdaughter, created his œuvre by taking the artwork from advertisements and book jackets and twisting it to reveal the influencing machines that were hidden within the image. Thus, a prancing devil from a newspaper ad for storage batteries is given a mysterious black box which transmits the disembodied voices that Fent is hearing in his head; and the cover of a popular book on hypnosis is customised to include a figure trapped in a hypnotic beam almost identical to the one so carefully inked by James Tilly Matthews 100 years earlier.
Fent was also tormented by doctors whom he refers to as ‘Dr. Know-All’ and ‘Dr. Rönthgen’ (Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays was a recent scientific breakthrough) who ‘treated’ him with sinister techniques such as ‘hypnosis-auto-suggestion’ and ‘electro-technology’.
When the first X-ray image – of the living skeleton inside Roentgen’s wife’s hand – was splashed across the front pages of the world’s press in 1896, it was claimed by many, not just the insane, as evidence for an invisible body that had until now remained concealed from the world of outward appearances. Similarly, when radio began to emerge as a household technology in the 1920s, it too was claimed by spiritualists as evidence that ‘brain waves’ or ‘mind rays’ could be sent and received across large distances.
In 1924, just as radio was beginning to penetrate the high street market, Johanna Wintsch, a patient at the Burghölzli asylum in Zurich, produced a work of embroidery which she called ‘Je Suis Radio’. Stitched in scintillating colours onto cream-coloured cloth, it shows a lattice of waves and vibrations similar to many others here, and described repeatedly as representing a heightened state of cosmic communication where rays and energies flow from the subject out into the Universe, where they are woven into a vast nervous system that binds the artist with the infinite.
The exhibition opens and closes with an installation in the lobby that brings the influencing machine up to the present (or future), while also returning full circle to the obsessions of James Tilly Matthews, a passionate peace activist whose eccentric private diplomacy during the French Revolution began the tangle of events that ended with his confinement in Bedlam. 6
Half a million sheets of A4 paper form a giant sculpture representing the work of Vanda Viera-Schmidt, who was discharged from a psychiatric hospital in 1995 after a psychotic period during which she believed that demonic operators with portable uranium devices were torturing and even murdering passengers on the underground with electricity and ‘uranium hits’. Released into sheltered accommodation in Berlin, she has since been drawing diagrammatic representations of conflicts all over the world, at a rate of up to 1,000 per day. Now, whenever any conflict breaks out, she uses her drawings to mediate it. This work has helped to restore her peace of mind, and she hopes it will be able in time to achieve a wider ‘peace on Earth’, where the use of weapons and violence can be replaced with her diagrams.
‘The Air Loom And Other Dangerous Influencing Machines’ is at the Prinzhorn Collection, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik, Heidelberg until 15 April 2007.
Details at prinzhorn.uni-hd.de
a Address: 903 N. Calvert St., Baltimore MD 21202. Email- Johnmcmurt@aol.com Phone- 410-539-5140.
b Financial contribution to this article was made by fellow members of Christians Against Mental Slavery with website http://www.slavery.org.uk/ .
c Loos Patent # 6017302 "Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous system" can "cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation."
d Vide infra for discussion of the analogously listed "Silent Sound" device in this reference.
e Also called S-quad, Silent Sounds, Inc. licensed Lowery Patent #5159703 "Silent subliminal presentation system", also has advanced brain wave entrainment technology with several classified patents. (See http://www.megabrain.com/eeg.htm and http://www.megabrain.com/patent.htm accessed 8/4/04) Unessential is individual direction, but possible by ultrasound.
f National Security Advisor to President Carter.
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241 Multi-Media Solutions. Knoxville/Alcoa Corporate Offices, PO Box 113, Alcoa, TN 37701. This company handles American Technology products. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.m-media.com/Audio-Displays/hss/index.php
242 McKinney J. Letter to President Clinton at http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/mckinney.htm
243 Cheryl Welsh Freedom of Information Act request reply for review of Soviet literature, March 19, 1997. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/nsa1.gif
244 Lopatin VN and Tsygankov VD. Psychotronic War and the Security of Russia Moscow, 1999. See research abroad section in translation accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.raven1.net/russtran.htm
245 Babacek M. "Is That Feasible to Manipulate Human Brain at Distance?" First paper accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Campus/2289/webpage.htm
246 Smith C. "On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology" J Psycho-Social Studies 2(2) #3, 2003. Article accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.btinternet.com/~psycho_social/Vol3/JPSS-CS2.html
247 American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV Task Force. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TRTM) American Psychiatric Association, p 297-343, 2000.
248 Flaum M and Schultz SK. "The Core Symptoms of Schizophrenia" Ann Med 28(6): 525-31, 1996. Abstract Pubmed available.
249 Isselbacher, KJ, Adams RD, Brunwald E, Petersdorf RG, and Wilson JD (eds.) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine Ninth Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p 150, 1980.
250 McMurtrey JJ. "Microwave Bioeffect Congruence with Schizophrenia" In press, 2005. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.slavery.org.uk/MicrowaveCongruenceSchiz.doc & http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/microwav.rtf
251 McMurtrey JJ. "Thought Reading Capacity" In press 2005. Accessed 3/8/05 at http://www.slavery.org.uk/ThoughtReadingCapacity.htm
We need a program of psychosurgery for political control of our society. The purpose is physical control of the mind. Everyone who deviates from the given norm can be surgically mutilated.
--1974 Congressional Testimony of Dr. Jose Delgado
The individual may think that the most important reality is his own existence, but this is only his personal point of view. This lacks historical perspective. Man does not have the right to develop his own mind. This kind of liberal orientation has great appeal. We must electronically control the brain. Someday armies and generals will be controlled by electric stimulation of the brain.
--Dr. Jose Delgado, Director of Neuropsychiatry Yale University Medical School Congressional Record, No. 26, Vol. 118 February 24, 1974
b) TECHNOLOGIES EMPLOYED- The identification verification technologies required as part of the program under subsection (a) may include identification scanners, biometrics, retinal, iris, or facial scanners, or any other technologies that the Secretary considers appropriate for purposes of the program.
What does that mean for me?
Starting three years from now, if you live or work in the United States, you'll need a federally approved ID card to travel on an airplane, open a bank account, collect Social Security payments, or take advantage of nearly any government service. Practically speaking, your driver's license likely will have to be reissued to meet federal standards.
Wireless News: VeriChip FDA Approval
VeriChip has been given an official green light to begin selling its implantable human microchip in the United States.
The Palm Beach, Fla., company yesterday announced that it had received "written guidance" from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that the chip is not considered a "regulated medical device."
The designation clears the way for the company to begin marketing, distributing and selling the rice-sized chip for use in a "variety of security, emergency and healthcare applications," the company said.
VeriChip made news in February when it challenged Andy Rooney, the curmudgeonly commentator on TV's "60 Minutes" news magazine, to "chip" his words.
Rooney quipped during his segment on the February 10 show that he would be willing to have a chip implanted under his skin, if that would help speed up and assure security at airports.
"We need some system for permanently identifying safe people. Most of us are never going to blow anything up and there's got to be something better than one of these photo Ids," Rooney said. "I wouldn't mind having something planted permanently in my arm that would identify me."
Applied Digital Solutions responded the next day by inviting Rooney to "join a select group of people to get chipped."
A family in Boca Raton, Florida, had contacted Applied Digital Solutions in December to volunteer as chip "guinea pigs."
Dr. Jose M.R. Delgado
Excerpt from: Physical Control of the Mind, Toward a Psychocivilized Society Jose M. R. Delgado, M.D. (Harper & Row, NY, 1969)
Two-way Radio Communication with the Brain (Pgs. 89 - 96)
Dr Jose Delgado, a neurophsiologist at Yale University School, was especially interested in Electronic Stimulation of the Brain. By implanting a small probe into the brain, Delgado discovered that he could wield enormous power over his subject. Using a device he called the 'stimoceiver' which operated by FM radio waves, he was able to electrically orchestrate a wide range of human emotions. These included rage, lust and fatigue. (Note: Stimoceiver is a S.B.M.C.D. or/ Spherical Biological Monitoring and Control Device. This ultra submicrominiaturized unit is the offspring of alien technology. Much of this was continued on the MK-Ultra Sub-Project 95 by Dr.Jose Delgado and Dr Louis Joylan West who mastered a technology called "RHIC-EDOM." RHIC means "Radio Hypnotic Intracerebral Control", and EDOM means "Electronic Dissolution Of Memory." These implants are stimulated to induce a post-hypnotic suggestion. EDOM is nothing more than "Missing Time" or/ the erasure of memory from the consciousness. The following Projects still use advanced RHIC-EDOM technology by CIA Black Ops and the military............Col.)
[ Under the auspices the fascist regime in Spain during WWII, Jose Delgado began his research into the use of pain and pleasure for mind control. Later, as Director of Neuropsychiatry at Yale University Medical School, he refined the design of his "transdermal stimulator"...a computer controlled, remote neurologic transceiver and aversion stimulator. Since the 1970s, Delgado "has shifted his interest from direct electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) to the broader area of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields." (Cross Currents - Dr. Robert Becker) ]
This gap is now being filled, and as Figures 4 and 5 show, it is already possible to equip animals or human beings with minute instruments called "stimoceivers" for radio transmission and reception of electrical messages to and from the brain in completely unrestrained subjects. Microminiaturization of the instrument's electronic components permits control of all parameters of excitation for radio stimulation of three different points within the brain and also telemetric recording of three channels of intracerebral electrical activity.
It is reasonable to speculate that in the near future the stimoceiver may provide the essential link from man to computer to man, with a reciprocal feedback between neurons and instruments which represents a new orientation for the medical control of neurophysiological functions. For example, it is conceivable that the localized abnormal electrical activity which announces the imminence of an epileptic attack could be picked up by implanted electrodes, telemetered to a distant instrument room, tape-recorded, and analyzed by a computer capable of recognizing abnormal electrical patterns. Identification of the specific electrical disturbance could trigger the emission of radio signals to activate the patient's stimoceiver and apply an electrical stimulation to a determined inhibitory area of the brain, thus blocking the onset of the convulsive episode.
One of the limiting factors in these studies was the existence of wires leading from the brain to the stimoceiver outside of the scalp. The wires represented a possible portal of entry for infection and could be a hindrance to hair grooming in spite of their small size. It would obviously be far more desirable to employ minute instruments which could be implanted completely beneath the skin. For this purpose we have developed in our laboratory a small three-channel stimulator which can be placed subcutaneously and which has terminal leads to be implanted within the brain (Figure 6). The instrument is solid state, has no batteries, and can work indefinitely. Necessary electrical energy, remote control of parameters of stimulation, and choice of channels are provided by transdermal coupling, using a small coil which is activated by frequency-modulated radio signals.
The technology for nonsensory communication between brains and computers through the intact skin is already at our fingertips, and its consequences are difficult to predict. In the past the progress of civilization has tremendously magnified the power of our senses, muscles, and skills. Now we are adding a new dimension: the direct interface between brains and machines. Although true, this statement is perhaps too spectacular and it requires cautious clarification. Our present knowledge regarding the coding of information, mechanisms of perception, and neuronal bases of behavior is so elemental that it is highly improbable that electrical correlates of thoughts or emotions could be picked up, transmitted, and electrically applied to the suitable structure of a different subject in order to be recognized and to trigger related thoughts or emotions. It is, however, already possible to induce a large variety of responses, from motor effects to emotional reactions and intellectual manifestations, by direct electrical stimulation of the brain. Also, several investigators have learned to identify patterns of electrical activity (which a computer could also recognize) localized in specific areas of the brain and related to determined phenomena such as perception of smells or visual perception of edges and movements. We are advancing rapidly in the pattern recognition of electrical correlates of behavior and in the methodology for two-way radio communication between brain and computers.
Fears have been expressed that this new technology brings with it the threat of possible unwanted and unethical remote control of the cerebral activities of man by other men, but as will be discussed later, this danger is quite improbable and is outweighed by the expected clinical and scientific benefits. Electronic knowledge and microminiaturization have progressed so much that the limits appear biological rather than technological. Our greatest need is for more experimental information about the neuronal mechanisms related to behavioral and mental processes, and research in unrestricted subjects promises to reveal new understanding of normal minds and more efficient therapy of disturbed brains.
Jose Delgado's Physical Control of the Mind
Angulo, Earl, "Invention: Device for Removing Foreign Objects
from Anatomic Organs"; NASA Tech Briefs, March 1993.
Barinaga, Marcia, "To Sleep, Perchance to ...Learn? New Studies
Say Yes"; Science, Vol.265, July 29, 1994.
Broad, William J., "Spy Satellites' Early Role As 'Floodlight'
Coming Clear"; Science Times, The New York Times, Tuesday,
September 12, 1995.
Foster, K.R., Schepps J.L, Stoy R.D., Schwan H.P., "Dielectric
properties of brain tissue between 0.01 and 10 GHz", Physics in
Medicine and Biology, 1979, Nov, 24(6):1177-87 (Read abstract
(No credit given), "Cyber Wars", Science and Technology, The
Economist, January 13, 1996:p77-78.
Orne, Martin (there are so many articles and book chapters; 50
are available through the UC Library System) he has written or
co-authored; I list just a couple which show the direction Orne's
work has taken.) With Waid W.M., "The physiological detection of
deception"; American Scientist, 1982 Jul-Aug, v70(n4):402-409.
There are many studies involving electrodermal responses - i.e.,
electrodes attached to the skin, injection of false memories
during controlled sleep laboratories, studies on eye movements
during hypnotically induced hallucinations, many studies
involving hypnosis and its effect on subjects, etc. Perhaps,
there are some "abductees" who remember the wires running off
their skin to some type of device. My personal favorite which
probably got him tapped by the CIA: With Paskewitz D.A.,
"Aversive situational effects on alpha feedback training",
Science, 1974 Nov,v186(n3162):458-460. (involved 22 male
undergraduates, and included watching whether anticipation of
electric shock would depress alpha activity in a feedback
situation by studying greatly increased heart rate and number of
spontaneous skin conductance responses.)
Schacter, Daniel L. (a brilliant scientist; he has many studies
related to memory systems and how they work), "Evaluating amnesia
in multiple personality disorder", in Psychological concepts and
dissociative disorders, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.,
Hillsdale, NJ, 1994, p.259-282. (Read abstract only, read many of
the 20 lengthy abstracts available through UCLA Melvyl system.)
Schwan, H.P., "History of medical and biological ultrasound at
the University of Pennsylvania" (Martin Orne's institution),
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 1994, 20(7):639-44.
Tapscott, Mark, "DoD, Intel Agencies Look at Russian Mind Control
Technology, Claims: FBI Considered Testing on Koresh"; Defense
Electronics (17), July 1993.
West, Louis Jolyon, "The meaning of hallucinations", Diagnostics
and psychopathology, monograph series, No.1, W.W. Norton & co,
Inc., New York, NY, US, 1987, p49-62.
West, Louis Jolyon, "Psychiatric implications of stressful
methods employed by totalist cults", in Stress in psychiatric
disorders, Springer Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1994,
p.117-139. (Read lengthy abstract only.)
West, Louis Jolyon, "Hallucinations: Behavior, Experience, and
Theory", John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1975. (Selected
chapters I thought pertinent to my research.)
Delgado, Jose, "Physical Control of the Mind", Harper and Row,
Flanagan, Patrick, "The Neurophone", Chapter 3, Pyramid Power,
8th Edition, 1980.
Pines, Maya, "The Brain Changers", 1973, Harcourt Brace
Jovanoich, New York (0-15-113700-5), Chapter entitled "Remote
Control of the Brain - Through Pain and Pleasure" (pgs.32-54)
concerning Dr. Jose Delgado's work.
Schitzgebel R.L., and Schitzgebel R.K., "Psychotechnology",
Rhinehart and Winston, 1973. (You might be able to locate this
book in a university library.)
Valle, Jacques, "Messengers of Deception", Ballantine(?), And/Or,
"Biochip Technology Development", Eggers M.D. (lead), Technical
Report 901, Air Force Contract F19628-90-C-002, from the Lincoln
Laboratory (MIT), Lexington, MASS, report has limited
distribution. (Response to letter requesting information on
ECCO brochure describing low-earth orbiting satellite system for
the provision of voice, data, position location and other mobile
satellite services (MSS); lists System Overview specs; Beam
Pattern specs; Gateway Segment specs; Subscriber Services and
Equipment specs; Phased Implementation - and who will be involved
world-wide; and Service Provision. (Remember your government uses
the same communication system you do. Further, I don't think this
brochure is going to be made public for very much longer.)
Pick-up any literature on the Lo-Jack System for locating
"stolen" vehicles for an explanation of how your missing vehicle
is located - well, as much as they are willing to tell you.
Executive Summary (full reading); Final Report from the Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (read selected chapters
covering experiments involving unwitting human subjects.).
Government Printing Office, 1995.
(The) Greenbaum Lecture on Ritual Abuse, MPD and Mind Control;
personal communication received 1/11/96.
Jones, Fowler C., (dissertation), "The effects of a positive
electric field on the behavior of emotionally disturbed
children"; Dissertation Abstracts International,
v35(n9-A):5969-5970, Mar, 1975.
Ilmoniemi R.J., Williamson S.J., Kaufman L., Weinberg H.J., and
Boyd A.D., "Method for Locating a Small Magnetic Object in the
Human Body"; IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Engineering, Vol.35,
No.7, July 1988.
McKinney, Julianne (Association of National Security Alumni),
"Microwave Harassment & Mind-Control Experimentation"; Electronic
Surveillance Project, December 1992. (A real eye opener regarding
how a victim is perceived by society.)
Williamson S.J., and Kaufman L., "Evolution of Neuromagnetic
Topographic Mapping", Brain Topography, Vol.3, No.1, 1990.
Papers (indexed by paper title):
(The) British Racists Behind America's School Reforms: Part 2,
by Scott Thompson and Jeff Steinberg, from Executive
Intelligence Review V20, #44.
Canadian Brain Washing Experiments, San Jose Mercury News
articles dated 10/09/88 and 11/19/92.
(The) Controllers: A New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction, by
Martin Cannon, 1989.
Committee on Veteran's Affairs, 103d Congress, 2d Session -
Committee Print - S.Prt. 103-97, Chaired by John D. Rockefeller
IV, "Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans' Health? Lessons
Spanning Half A Century", VERICOMM BBS, 8/17/95.
Effects of 6-10 Hz ELF on Brain Waves, David S. Walonick, 5/90,
MindNet Journal, Vol. 1, No. 11, 01/23/96.
Mind Control & Mental Telepathy, Patrick A. Warden, VERICOMM BBS
Mind Control Research: Proof of Mind Control Technology; Cheryl
Welsh, Freedom of Thought Foundation, VERICOMM BBS, 1/05/96.
Non-Lethal Weapons - Mind Control; Frey, Alan, "Human Auditory
system Response to Modulated Electromagnetic Energy, Journal of
Applied Physiology, Vol.17, No.4, July 1962.
(A) Primer on Hypnosis and Mind Control, Darrell Bross,
VERICOMM BBS, 5/95.
Remote Mind Control Technology, Alan Yu, VERICOMM BBS,
Social Psychology and Group Dynamics; Jan Groenveld, 1/03/96.
Synthetic Telepathy, Judy Wall, MindNet Journal, Vol. 1, No.
The experiments, described in the Science journal, offer a scientific explanation for a phenomenon experienced by one in 10 people.
Two teams used virtual reality goggles to con the brain into thinking the body was located elsewhere.
The visual illusion plus the feel of their real bodies being touched made volunteers sense that they had moved outside of their physical bodies.
The researchers say their findings could have practical applications, such as helping take video games to the next level of virtuality so the players feel as if they are actually inside the game.
Clinically, surgeons might also be able to perform operations on patients thousands of miles away by controlling a robotic virtual self.
For some, out-of-body experiences or OBEs occurs spontaneously, while for others it is linked to dangerous circumstances, a near-death experience, a dream-like state or use of alcohol or drugs.
One theory is that it is down to how people perceive their own body - those unhappy or less in touch with their body are more likely to have an OBE.
But the two teams, from University College London, UK, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, believe there is a neurological explanation.
Their work suggests a disconnection between the brain circuits that process visual and touch sensory information may thus be responsible for some OBEs.
In the Swiss experiments, the researchers asked volunteers to stand in front of a camera while wearing video-display goggles.
Through these goggles, the volunteers could see a camera view of their own back - a three-dimensional "virtual own body" that appeared to be standing in front of them.
When the researchers stroked the back of the volunteer with a pen, the volunteer could see their virtual back being stroked either simultaneously or with a time lag.
The volunteers reported that the sensation seemed to be caused by the pen on their virtual back, rather than their real back, making them feel as if the virtual body was their own rather than a hologram.
Even when the camera was switched to film the back of a mannequin being stroked rather than their own back, the volunteers still reported feeling as if the virtual mannequin body was their own.
And when the researchers switched off the goggles, guided the volunteers back a few paces, and then asked them to walk back to where they had been standing, the volunteers overshot the target, returning nearer to the position of their "virtual self".
Dr Henrik Ehrsson, who led the UCL research, used a similar set-up in his tests and found volunteers had a physiological response - increased skin sweating - when they felt their virtual self was being threatened - appearing to be hit with a hammer.
Dr Ehrsson said: "This experiment suggests that the first-person visual perspective is critically important for the in-body experience. In other words, we feel that our self is located where the eyes are."
Dr Susan Blackmore, psychologist and visiting lecturer at the University of the West of England, said: "This has at last brought OBEs into the lab and tested one of the main theories of how they occur.
"Scientists have long suspected that the clue to these extraordinary, and sometimes life-changing, experiences lies in disrupting our normal illusion of being a self behind our eyes, and replacing it with a new viewpoint from above or behind."
Story from BBC NEWS:
...No, Mom, I can't tell you where I am. I was told not to say.
SARAH'S MOM (V.O./filtered)
But honey, I need to know where I can reach you or I'll be worried sick. It turns out I can't stay up here...the electricity's off... and I don't know just where I'll be.
Sarah hesitates, then:
Okay, here's the number. Are you ready?
SARAH'S MOM (V.O./filtered)
205 INT. MOUNTAIN CABIN - NIGHT 205
SLOW PAN around the room as the conversation between Sarah and her Mom continues, completely VOICE OVER.
It's 408-555-1439. Room 14.
SARAH'S MOM (V.O.)
I've got it.
The PAN continues, revealing an overturned chair.
Okay, I've gotta go. I'm sorry I can't tell you very much now, Mom.
I love you.
The PAN comes to a table. Smashed plates. Spilled coffee.
A spatter of blood. A phone. It follows the phone cord onto Terminator in CLOSE-UP as he continues in a perfect simulation of her mother's voice...
TERMINATOR (Mother's voice)
I love you too, sweetheart.
206 INT. MOTEL ROOM - NIGHT 206
Sarah hangs up the phone, vaguely disturbed.
May 23rd 2002
From The Economist print edition
People already worry about genetics. They should worry about brain science too
IN AN attempt to treat depression, neuroscientists once carried out a simple experiment. Using electrodes, they stimulated the brains of women in ways that caused pleasurable feelings. The subjects came to no harm—indeed their symptoms appeared to evaporate, at least temporarily—but they quickly fell in love with their experimenters.
Such a procedure (and there have been worse in the history of neuroscience) poses far more of a threat to human dignity and autonomy than does cloning. Cloning is the subject of fierce debate, with proposals for wholesale bans. Yet when it comes to neuroscience, no government or treaty stops anything. For decades, admittedly, no neuroscientist has been known to repeat the love experiment. A scientist who used a similar technique to create remote-controlled rats seemed not even to have entertained the possibility. “Humans? Who said anything about humans?” he said, in genuine shock, when questioned. “We work on rats.”
Ignoring a possibility does not, however, make it go away. If asked to guess which group of scientists is most likely to be responsible, one day, for overturning the essential nature of humanity, most people might suggest geneticists. In fact neurotechnology poses a greater threat—and also a more immediate one. Moreover, it is a challenge that is largely ignored by regulators and the public, who seem unduly obsessed by gruesome fantasies of genetic dystopias.
A person's genetic make-up certainly has something important to do with his subsequent behaviour. But genes exert their effects through the brain. If you want to predict and control a person's behaviour, the brain is the place to start. Over the course of the next decade, scientists may be able to predict, by examining a scan of a person's brain, not only whether he will tend to mental sickness or health, but also whether he will tend to depression or violence. Neural implants may within a few years be able to increase intelligence or to speed up reflexes. Drug companies are hunting for molecules to assuage brain-related ills, from paralysis to shyness (see article).
A public debate over the ethical limits to such neuroscience is long overdue. It may be hard to shift public attention away from genetics, which has so clearly shown its sinister side in the past. The spectre of eugenics, which reached its culmination in Nazi Germany, haunts both politicians and public. The fear that the ability to monitor and select for desirable characteristics will lead to the subjugation of the undesirable—or the merely unfashionable—is well-founded.
Not so long ago neuroscientists, too, were guilty of victimising the mentally ill and the imprisoned in the name of science. Their sins are now largely forgotten, thanks in part to the intractable controversy over the moral status of embryos. Anti-abortion lobbyists, who find stem-cell research and cloning repugnant, keep the ethics of genetic technology high on the political agenda. But for all its importance, the quarrel over abortion and embryos distorts public discussion of bioethics; it is a wonder that people in the field can discuss anything else.
In fact, they hardly do. America's National Institutes of Health has a hefty budget for studying the ethical, legal and social implications of genetics, but it earmarks nothing for the specific study of the ethics of neuroscience. The National Institute of Mental Health, one of its component bodies, has seen fit to finance a workshop on the ethical implications of “cyber-medicine”, yet it has not done the same to examine the social impact of drugs for “hyperactivity”, which 7% of American six- to eleven-year-olds now take. The Wellcome Trust, Britain's main source of finance for the study of biomedical ethics, has a programme devoted to the ethics of brain research, but the number of projects is dwarfed by its parallel programme devoted to genetics.
The worriers have not spent these resources idly. Rather, they have produced the first widespread legislative and diplomatic efforts directed at containing scientific advance. The Council of Europe and the United Nations have declared human reproductive cloning a violation of human rights. The Senate is soon to vote on a bill that would send American scientists to prison for making cloned embryonic stem cells.
Yet neuroscientists have been left largely to their own devices, restrained only by standard codes of medical ethics and experimentation. This relative lack of regulation and oversight has produced a curious result. When it comes to the brain, society now regards the distinction between treatment and enhancement as essentially meaningless. Taking a drug such as Prozac when you are not clinically depressed used to be called cosmetic, or non-essential, and was therefore considered an improper use of medical technology. Now it is regarded as just about as cosmetic, and as non-essential, as birth control or orthodontics. American legislators are weighing the so-called parity issue—the argument that mental treatments deserve the same coverage in health-insurance plans as any other sort of drug. Where drugs to change personality traits were once seen as medicinal fripperies, or enhancements, they are now seen as entitlements.
This flexible attitude towards neurotechnology—use it if it might work, demand it if it does—is likely to extend to all sorts of other technologies that affect health and behaviour, both genetic and otherwise. Rather than resisting their advent, people are likely to begin clamouring for those that make themselves and their children healthier and happier.
This might be bad or it might be good. It is a question that public discussion ought to try to settle, perhaps with the help of a regulatory body such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, which oversees embryo research in Britain. History teaches that worrying overmuch about technological change rarely stops it. Those who seek to halt genetics in its tracks may soon learn that lesson anew, as rogue scientists perform experiments in defiance of well-intended bans. But, if society is concerned about the pace and ethics of scientific advance, it should at least form a clearer picture of what is worth worrying about, and why.
This was a major shift in political theory. Actually and contrary to all appearances, it wasn’t unlike what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari advocated in Anti-Oedipus [Capitalism and Schizophrenia], or Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punishment, in the wake of May ’68.
Marxist rhetoric in politics had bottomed out. The student rebellion had proved at least one thing: the French Communist Party, trade-unions and the working class—the entire institutional left—had ceased to be revolutionary.
No wonder French post-’68 thinkers, Baudrillard included, looked somewhere else for revolutionary alternatives. Failing to enlist their allies, they resolved to sleep with the enemy.
All of the ‘children of May,’ revolutionaries bereft of a revolution, turned to capitalism, eager to extract its subversive energy they no longer found in traditional class struggles. Updating the theory of power and the fluctuations of subjectivity to the erratic shifts of the semiotic code, they assumed that they could redirect its flows and release in their wake new “deterritorialized” figures—psychotic creativity, desire, nomadism, becoming revolutionary—in spite of the abrupt “reterritorializations” that the system was bound to impose in order to insure its own survival. (Deterritorializations result from the absolute decodification of capital.)
Baudrillard didn’t disagree with them on the nature of the beast, only on the extent of the damage. Contrary to them, he maintained that their willful distinctions between various “regimes of madness,” or between thresholds and gradients of intensity (necessary to identify the direction and consistency of the flows) could not hold anymore. Libidinal distinctions would prove powerless to stem the flow. He saw them as doomed attempts to reintroduce a modicum of human agency in a process that had become both irreversible (linear, cumulative) and inhuman. Energetic and intense, capital was gradually gnawing away at every singularity. Simulating its fluidity, they had been engulfed by it. Revolution had come and gone; they arrived too late, one day after the orgy, like Kafka’s Messiah. Boldly going beyond Marx, they had simply lost their moorings. “Theoretical production, like material production, “ Baudrillard wrote, “loses its determinacy and begins to turn around itself, slipping en abyme toward a reality that cannot be found. This is where we are today: indeterminacy, the era of floating theories, as much as floating money…” (Symbolic Exchange, p.44). All the efforts to enlist capitalism on their side were bound to fail. The only way out of the morass was a radical leap of faith, a flight into the unknown. Only an absolute deterritorialization of theory itself could meet the absolute challenge of capital.
This is what Baudrillard meant by a total revolution: a strategy geared to escalate the system and push it to its breaking point. Then, giving up on every pretence of rationality, it would start revolving and achieve in the process a circularity of its own:” We know the potential of tautology when it reinforces the system’s claim to perfect sphericity (Ubu Roi’s belly)” (SE, p.4). Coming back full circle to his early pataphysical roots, Baudrillard was taunting capital to emulate Jarry’s absurdism—and share in Ubu’s grotesque fate. After all, wasn’t capitalism itself a pataphysical proposition? It was endlessly cutting the branch on which it sits, devastating the planet and endangering the human species while claiming to improve its lot. Capital didn’t care a fig for the fate of humanity. The real wasn’t its business. It had cancelled the principle of reality and substituted a codification of a higher order, a hyper-reality that made the real obsolete. Its dirge-like flows were self-referential, leaving everything else in a state of self-induced simulation. The flows of capital were posthumous, post-human. In their nihilistic energy, they carried the seeds of their own destruction. Only Ubu, Jarry’s truculent hero, the coward king cannibalizing his own entourage, and himself in the process, could account for such a bullish cynicism. The society of the spectacle was turning into a soft version of the theater of cruelty, a burlesque of death with the globe as its stage. Life was being exchanged for nothing, for a handful of glittering toys, work absorbed time like a sponge and left no traces. Baudrillard wasn’t the exterminator, but the system itself. Yet no one was paying attention.
In his Bastille days, De Sade challenged French regicides to draw revolution out of to its most extreme moral conclusions: “Fellow compatriots, a last-ditch effort is required if you really want to earn the name of Republican!” Already spinning himself silly with the system like an autistic child, Baudrillard was ready to make the extra mile. He would be the fool of capital and wave its Good News all around like a lantern: “Every system that approaches perfect operativity simultaneously approaches its downfall…it approaches absolute power and total absurdity; that is, immediate and probable subversion. A gentle push in the right place is enough to bring it crashing down.” (SE, p.4). Beware of gentle pataphysicians with a big hammer.
Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2007
Introduction: Exterminating Angel by Sylvere Lotringer, Pgs 10-13
It seems as though the world has been oversaturated with 'infants' of late. Or at the very least, those who have been 'infantilized.'
Of course, this thesis is not a novel one. Philosophers and 'commodity aesthetics' theoriticians like Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze, and Guy Debord have been writing about this and related subject matter for years now. And as previously noted, even Czech animator Jan Švankmajer has recently chimed in on the subject by taking Walt Disney Corporation to task and calling Walt Disney a 'destroyer of European culture.' Oddly and coincidently, a Tory politician once 'branded' Throbbing Gristle 'wreckers of civilization.' The aforementioned according to the July 2007 issue of The Wire magazine.
Meanwhile, in Craig Heimbichner's scathing attack on Thelema and the OTO (amongst a 'whole host' of other things), titled Blood on the Altar: The Secret History of the World's Most Dangerous Secret Society, he writes: We are in a universal lapse into a state of immaturity, a true indicator that we are in some sort of “era of the child.” This quote was extracted from a section of the book titled: The Wizards of Oz. It's worth reading the reader's comments section at length, as some interesting personages (ie Peter-Robert Koeing and Adam Parfrey) add their 'two cents' to the discussion.
At any 'rate,' Benjamin R. Barber's book should prove to be a welcomed addition to this critical body of work. Perhaps Fukuyama's 'End of History' hasn't come to pass after all. I should certainly hope not. At this point, we need all the help we can get. There aren't enough nannies to go around apparently.
Barber, the Gershon and Carol Kekst Professor of Civil Society at the University of Maryland, has devoted much of his life to the study of the effects of the consumer market on individuals and society as a whole. His hypothesis that consumer culture has turned adult citizens into children by catering to the lowest common denominator rings only too true, even if the sheer density and obsequiousness of this examination are likely to turn off much of the popular readership. Therein lies the conundrum of reviewing this impressive piece of work, wherein Barber proves his theory that the market imperative has conditioned us to lap up the easy offerings and reject hard, complicated works. This lifelong study of the effects of capitalism and privatization reveals a pervasiveness of branding and homogenization from which there is seemingly no turning back. With the call to arms of grassroots resistance, he does offer a glimmer of hope; despite the heavy weight, Barber's work deserves and surely will find its audience. David Siegfried
Imaginary evil is romantic and varied; real evil is gloomy, monotonous, barren, boring. Imaginary good is boring; real good is always new, marvelous, intoxicating. - Simone Weil
Richard Metzger’s article / op-ed piece, referenced in this previous entry, on Jack Parsons, is very important and merits a thorough and proper rebuttal--to say nothing of a thorough debunking. A successful execution of this rebuttal will aid in the formation of a more complete thesis, the process of which is being developed (in part) here.
Kevin Coogan has answered at least part of this puzzle, with his excellently researched paper: How Black is Black Metal?
These dystopian British "industrialists" saw mass consumer society, the Situationist "society of the spectacle," as -to quote from Guy Debord – a "permanent opium war" that reduced all who were trapped inside it to docile sleepwalkers. To anyone who wanted to break the stranglehold of media high priests over the imagination, providing "entertainment" was viewed as collaboration with the enemy. The artist's mission was to short-circuit the psychic control machine by breaking cultural and social taboos.
"COUNTERCULTURAL FASCISM" AND THE RADICAL EVOLANS
The sense of despair felt by industrial culture was not unique. A similar heroic/pessimistic worldview appeared in Europe after World War I. In the early 1920s there arose what I shall call "counter-cultural fascism." More a sensibility than a movement, it fused Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of the individual will-to-power and his contempt for middle-class morality with Oswald Spengler's belief in the imminent downfall of the West. Artists like Futurist founder Filippo Marinetti, Ezra Pound, Gabrieie D'Annunzio, and Ernst Jinger viewed traditional forms of conservatism with the same contempt that they felt for social democracy, rationalism, and the Enlightenment. While GPO [Genesis P-Orridge] was not really a countercultural fascist, TG [Throbbing Gristle] stood on the cusp of a revival of a "counter cultural fascist" turn in segments of haute bohemia.
Here are some of the excerpts in question from Richard Metzger's article, John Whiteside Parsons: Anti-Christ Superstar:
What has long been prophesied by the world's major
spiritual traditions is now coming to pass. Turn on CNN for a couple of
hours for ample proof: wars, killer viruses, floods, famines, violent
crime, earthquakes, Armageddon cults armed with nerve gas, suicide
bombers; Heaven's Gate; the list goes on and on.
Since the first link below is to an article I wrote about John Whiteside Parsons which pretty much sums up my ideas about him and his magickal legacy (and my entire political philosophy as well!) this intro is going to be quite brief.
And think about it. The Babalon Working, I mean. What a wonderfully strange idea: If the cosmic perfection of mankind is to be achieved by the return of the Christ consciousness, what better way to hurry the process up than to attempt to actually bring on the Apocalypse by inviting in the spawn of Hell?
From the Sodalitas Rosae-Crucis & Solis Alati website:
In the occult world the so-called ‘white’ and ‘black’ societies or groups have through all ages used such projections on each other. The group or tradition one belongs to is then "always" considered to be the one who really understands the way things are and have access to the real power and wisdom (regardless if this is considered to come from God or Satan, the higher consciousness or the unconsciousness, the light or the dark, etc.), while the other side is blinded by their own light respective darkness, and is quite or total lost.
These ‘black’ or ‘dark’ groups thus tend to shift the symbolism and focus all conscious power on the shadow or demon, while the vision of the guardian angel is repressed to an unconscious level. In this way the unconsciousness rules and controls as much in these cases as in the earlier ones.
I am currently working on an entry for the new companion blog, al-keme | research archive, titled "Kenneth, What's The Frequency?"
The origins of disinformation.com from Alex Constantine's Anti-Fascist Research Bin:
... Disinformation was designed to be the search service of choice for individuals looking for information on current affairs, politics, new science and the 'hidden information,' that seldom seems to slip through the cracks of the corporate-owned media conglomerates. Ironically, it was funded by one of the largest media companies in the world (TeleCommunications, Inc. (TCI), now part of AT&T), who paid for placement on Netscape's then ubiquitous search page. ...
Via: Mind Control Forums, Broadcasters News Groups page.
A sample article from disinfo.com by Richard Metzger, Creative Director of Disinformation (excerpts):
Did the Babalon Working actually work? For the sake of argument, if you believe it to be true, it's true enough. As a metaphor or a myth to explain the psychic and atmospheric turbulence taking place in the world today, it certainly works for me. What has long been prophesied by the world's major spiritual traditions is now coming to pass. Turn on CNN for a couple of hours for ample proof: wars, killer viruses, floods, famines, violent crime, earthquakes, Armageddon cults armed with nerve gas, suicide bombers; Heaven's Gate; the list goes on and on.
Certainly Parsons untimely death in a 1952 chemical explosion would leave the crown of the 'conquering child' unclaimed to this day as Thelemites continue to await their Chaos Messiah, but perhaps Parsons was an Antichrist and his particular mission was to crack open the Apocalyptic gateway and activate the occult forces necessary for the upheaval of consciousness.
The apostles of the new forms of gnosis unearthed by the Babalon Working will be art, the inspired initiator of sacred science and the torch of Gods appearing in new and unexpected forms in the unfolding of the divine drama. The poets, artists, philosophers and thinkers will form the first ranks of perfected humanity and no rules will apply save for freedom and nobility beyond the Kali Yuga.
But this will not happen without a struggle between the forces of control, black magick, and oppressive boredom on one hand and the Luciferian agents of wisdom, unleashed creativity and anarchic rebellion on the other. What we have been brainwashed to believe is 'good': patriotism, so-called 'free' enterprise, private property, Christianity (not the teachings of Christ, but the hateful travesty that the religion bearing his name has become thanks to the likes of Pat Robertson and his filthy ilk), is now beginning to be seen by the emerging generation of the crowned and conquering child to be the deathtrip bullshit it truly is.
A whole culture is collapsing and a new one is about to be born. Jack Parsons would be pleased.
Since the first link below is to an article I wrote about John Whiteside Parsons which pretty much sums up my ideas about him and his magickal legacy (and my entire political philosophy as well!) this intro is going to be quite brief.
And think about it. The Babalon Working, I mean. What a wonderfully strange idea: If the cosmic perfection of mankind is to be achieved by the return of the Christ consciousness, what better way to hurry the process up than to attempt to actually bring on the Apocalypse by inviting in the spawn of Hell?
Somehow, I think William Smatt and 'The Messiah' would also...'be pleased.'
I am currently working on an entry for the new companion blog, al-keme | research archive, titled "Kenneth, What's The Frequency?"
A new license plate template currently available through the State of Oklahoma Department of Motor Vehicles. Just in time for the new Mother Jones article implicating the FBI in the Oklahoma City bombings.
From the Democracy Now! program of August 3, 2007:
To most people the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing is a closed case. Timothy McVeigh and his accomplice Terry Nichols were the two prime suspects accused. McVeigh was executed in 2001, and Nichols is serving a life sentence. But a Salt Lake City lawyer searching for the truth behind his brother's death has uncovered a wealth of new information that could implicate the FBI. The documents he dug up through countless Freedom of Information Act requests suggest the FBI knew about the plot to bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in advance but did little to prevent it.
I am also currently working on an entry for the new companion blog, al-keme | research archive, titled "Kenneth, What's The Frequency?"